Despite widespread adoption, machine learning models remain mostly black boxes. Understanding the reasons behind predictions is, however, quite important in assessing trust, which is fundamental if one plans to take action based on a prediction, or when choosing whether to deploy a new model. Such understanding also provides insights into the model, which can be used to transform an untrustworthy model or prediction into a trustworthy one. In this work, we propose LIME, a novel explanation technique that explains the predictions of any classifier in an interpretable and faithful manner, by learning an interpretable model locally around the prediction. We also propose a method to explain models by presenting representative individual predictions and their explanations in a non-redundant way, framing the task as a submodular optimization problem. We demonstrate the flexibility of these methods by explaining different models for text (e.g. random forests) and image classification (e.g. neural networks). We show the utility of explanations via novel experiments, both simulated and with human subjects, on various scenarios that require trust: deciding if one should trust a prediction, choosing between models, improving an untrustworthy classifier, and identifying why a classifier should not be trusted.
Author(s): Marco Tulio Ribeiro, Sameer Singh, Carlos Guestrin
Publication Date: 2016
Publication Site: kdd, Association for Computing Machinery
Understanding why a model makes a certain prediction can be as crucial as the prediction’s accuracy in many applications. However, the highest accuracy for large modern datasets is often achieved by complex models that even experts struggle to interpret, such as ensemble or deep learning models, creating a tension between accuracy and interpretability. In response, various methods have recently been proposed to help users interpret the predictions of complex models, but it is often unclear how these methods are related and when one method is preferable over another. To address this problem, we present a unified framework for interpreting predictions, SHAP (SHapley Additive exPlanations). SHAP assigns each feature an importance value for a particular prediction. Its novel components include: (1) the identification of a new class of additive feature importance measures, and (2) theoretical results showing there is a unique solution in this class with a set of desirable properties. The new class unifies six existing methods, notable because several recent methods in the class lack the proposed desirable properties. Based on insights from this unification, we present new methods that show improved computational performance and/or better consistency with human intuition than previous approaches.
Author(s): Scott M. Lundberg, Su-In Lee
Publication Date: 2017
Publication Site: Conference on Neural Information Processing Systems
In machine learning, there has been a trade-off between model complexity and model performance. Complex machine learning models e.g. deep learning (that perform better than interpretable models e.g. linear regression) have been treated as black boxes. Research paper by Ribiero et al (2016) titled “Why Should I Trust You” aptly encapsulates the issue with ML black boxes. Model interpretability is a growing field of research. Please read here for the importance of machine interpretability. This blog discusses the idea behind LIME and SHAP.